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Libertarians generally ignore or make excuses for the fact that essentially all property in land has been coercively expropriated (often repeatedly) from preceding peoples. Including acquisition from the commons. Any philosophy of just property in land must deal with this historical fact.


Acquisition from the Commons (1 link)
Libertarians often make moral arguments for acquisition from commons. But aquisition from the commons is as unilateral, involuntary and coercive as eminent domain. It ignores the fact that commons are actually usually managed, and ignores the fact that (historically) commons in Britain were acquired by governing nobles.
Homesteading (4 links)
Libertarians frequently claim homesteading as a peaceful origin of property, but that is ignorant historical revisionism. There is no land in the world that can show a convincing chain of ownership through original homesteading (before other owners.) Existing claims of homesteading generally ignore pre-existing peoples who were swept aside. Homesteading for spontaneous establishment of ownership is ahistorical.
John Locke Against Freedom [More...]
John Locke’s classical liberalism isn’t a doctrine of freedom. It’s a defense of expropriation and enslavement.
John Locke’s Road to Serfdom [More...]
John Locke advocated for a world based on expropriation, enslavement, and serfdom.
Local Commons (13 links)
Elinor Ostrom's real-world observed solutions to regulating commons without ownership. These require government protection of community rights to control the commons. This is not libertarian: no private property, and two levels of government.
Locke’s Folly [More...]
"Jeffersonian Democrats made a serious attempt to implement Locke’s theories. Colonization and expropriation followed."


Contra Locke, property is not made by mixing labor: it is made by mixing coercion.
Mike Huben, "Interview With Mike Huben, Creator Of Critiques Of Libertarianism"
Yet reason tells us that there is no property in durable objects, such as lands or houses, when carefully examined in passing from hand to hand, but must, in some period, have been founded on fraud and injustice.
David Hume, "Of The Original Contract"
What is wanting in many libertarian political theories is the recognition that property rights are coercive and so stand in need of justification to others.
Kevin Vallier, "On the Problematic Political Authority of Property Rights: How Huemer Proves Too Much"
[W]e have now sunk to a depth at which the restatement of the obvious is the first duty of intelligent men.
George Orwell, "Review of Power: A New Social Analysis by Bertrand Russell"